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BIODIVERSITY

 

Protect and Conserve Biodiversity of Nagaland
 

Nagaland is very rich in bio-diversity, both flora and fauna. Even today some pockets of forests are covered with gigantic trees, where sun- rays can not penetrate. Due to reckless and uncontrolled cutting of trees for timber, firewood, continued Jhum cultivation and annual fire in vast tracts of land, forests got degraded and barren, which accelerated diminishing of the most of the original characteristics of the forests.

Though geographically being a small state, Nagaland has several types of forests, mainly because the state is mostly Tropical, and the altitudes range from a few hundred meters to about four thousand meters. The major types of forests found in the state, as per the classification of Champion & Seth, are as follows.

1. Northern Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests.

2. Northern Tropical  Semi- Evergreen  Forests

3. Northern  Sub- Tropical Broad  Leave  Wet Hill  Forests

4. Northern  Sub-Tropical Pine Forests

 5. Northern Montana Wet Temperate Forests &

 6.Temperate Forests.  

flora:

Coniferous:

Pinus khasyia(Indigenous), Pinus caribiae (Exotic),Pinus petula and Cryptomeria japonica (Exotic)

Broad leaved:

 Lagerstromia speciosa (Ajhar), Tectona grandis (Teak), Mangifera indica (Am), Alnus nepalensis (Alder), Morus laevigata (Bola), Tetrameles nudiflora (Bhelu), Trewia nudiflora (Bhelkar), Betula alnoides (Betula), Canarium resiniferum (Dhuna), Gmelina arborea (Gomari), Cinnamomum cecicodaphne (Gonsoroi), Nyssa javanica (Gahorisopa), Terminalia myriocarpa (Hollock), Adina eligocephala (Haldisopa),Cedrela toona (Jatipoma), Podocarpus nerifolia (Jinari), Altingia exelsa (Jutuli), Duabanga grandiflora(Khokon), Albizzia procera (Koroi), Anthocephalus kadamba (Kadam), Shorea assamica (Mekai), Endospermum chinensis (Phulgomari), / Melia azadirach (Ghoora-Neem), Stereospermum chelonoides (Paroli), Magnolia spp. (Sopas), Cassia fistula (Sonaru), Bombax ceiba (Semal), Ficus nervosa (Robar), Spondias axillaris(Hog plum), Michelia champaca (Titasopa), Bischofia javanica (Uriam), Juglans regia (Walnut), Mansonia  dipikai (Badam), Phoebe goalparensis (Bonsom), Dipterocarpus macrocarpus (Hollang), Terminalia chebula (Hilika), Schima wallichii (Gogra), Mesua ferrea (Nahar), Albizzia lebbeck (Siris), Quercus Spp. (Oaks), Artocarpus chaplasha Sam), Chukrasia tabularis (Bogipoma), Terminilia bellerica (Bahera). Hovenia dulcis(Coral tree), Acrocarpus fraxinifolius(Mandani), Bucklandia populnea(Pipli), Pseudostreblus indicus(Tsüngkoh)

World tallest Rhododendron tree, which is recorded in the Guineese Book,  has been found in Japfu Mountain of Kohima district.

Medicinal Plants.

Panax pseudo-gensing (Gensing), Taxus baccata (Yew), Aquilaria agallocha (Agar),Solanum khasianum, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi),  Aegle marmelos (Bel), Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpgandha),  Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha), Dioscorea deltoides (Kath Aloo),  Emblica officinalis (Amla), Swertia chirata (Chirata), Rubia cordifolia, Oroxylum indicum, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Passiflora edulis

 Bamboo :

There are 22 species of Bamboos available in the state. The important spp.of bamboo are:

1.                   Sinarundinaria griffithiana (Munro) Chao & Renv.

            ( Arundinaria griffithiana Munro) Saramati

2.          Sinarundinaria elegans (Kurz) Chao & Renv.       

            ( Arundinaria elegans Kurz) Puliebadze, near Kohima.

3.             Sinarundinaria rolloana (Gamble) Chao & Renv.

              ( Arundinaria rolloana Gamble) Japfü Range, Kohima.

4.             Sinarundinaria nagalandiana Naithani  Niriyo Peak, Wokha.  

5.             Chimonobambusa callosa (Munro) Nakai

            ( Arundinaria callosa (Munro) Puliebadze above Kohima and Mao. 

6.              Neomicrocalamus prainii (Gamble) Keng f.

            (Arundinaria prainii Gamble)   Puliebadze, Japfü Range.        

7.             Bambusa balcooa Roxb.       Wokha

8.             Bambusa tulda Roxb.   Kohima, Jaluki

9.             Bambusa palliada Munro Wokha, Kohima and Zeliang village

10.         Dendrocalamus hookeri  Munro   Kohima, Wokha

11.        Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn ex Munro 

             Dimapur-Kohima Road, and Wokha

12.         Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro Kohima, Mao. 

13.         Dendrocalamus calostachys (Kurz) Kurz

             Phikrokezema, Dimapur and Kohima

14.          Schizostachyum polymorphum (Munro) Majumdar

            (Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro) Longsachu near Wokha

15.           Schizostachyum dullooa (Gamble) Majumdar

             ( Teinostachyum dullooa Gamble) Yikum near Wokha

16.        Schizostachyum fuchsianum (Gamble) Majumdar

             (Cephalostachyum fuchsianum Gamble) Kohima, Zulhama-Kilomi  

 17.       Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz.   ( M. bambusoides Trin.) Jaluki

Canes:

1.       Calamus rotang

2.       Calamus flagellum

3        Calamus erectus

4.       Calamus gracilis

5.      Calamus floribundus                             

Orchids:

Nagaland has about 340 spp. out of 1250 spp. of orchids found in India. Most of the Orchids here are epiphytes or lithophytes. A few terrestrial orchids are also found in the state.

S.NO

NAME

1

Acampa papillosa

2

Acampa rigida

3

Acampa wightiana

4

Acanthephippium striatum

5

Acanthephippium sylhetense

6

Aerides crassifolium

7

Aerides fieldingii

8

Aerides multiflorum

9

Aerides odoratum

10

Anoectochilus crispus

11

Anoectochilus elwesil

12

Anoectochilus grandiflorus

13

Anoectochilus griffithi

14

Anoectochilus roxburghii

15

Anthogonium gracile

16

Aphyllorchis montana

17

Aphyllorchis prainii

18

Appendicula cornuata

19

Arachis bilinguis

20

Arachis cathcartii

21

Arundina graminifolia

22

Ascocentrum ampullaceum

23

Ascocentrum curvifolium

24

Ascocentrum micranthum

25

Ascocentrum miniatum

26

Brachycorythis obcordata

27

Bulbophyllum aculiflorum

28

Bulbophyllum affine

29

Bulbophyllum andersonii

30

Bulbophyllum careyanum

31

Bulbophyllum caudatum

32

Bulbophyllum cylindraceum

33

Bulbophyllum dyeranum

34

Bulbophyllum elatum

35

Bulbophyllum eulepharum

36

Bulbophyllum gambeiel

37

Bulbophyllum guttulatum

38

Bulbophyllum gymnopus

39

Bulbophyllum helenae

40

Bulbophyllum hirtum

41

Bulbophyllum hymenanthum

42

Bulbophyllum leopardinum

43

Bulbophyllum leptanthum

44

Bulbophyllum odoratissimum

45

Bulbophyllum ornatissimum

46

Bulbophyllum pencillium

47

Bulbophyllum piluliferum

48

Bulbophyllum polyrhizum

49

Bulbophyllum reptans

50

Bulbophyllum rigidum

51

Bulbophyllum rothschildianum

52

Bulbophyllum roxburghii

53

Bulbophyllum secundum

54

Bulbophyllum striatum

55

Bulbophyllum umbellatum

56

Bulbophyllum uniflorum

57

Bulbophyllum viridiforum

58

Bulbophyllum wallichi

59

Calanthe alismifolia

60

Calanthe alpina

61

Calanthe angusta

62

Calanthe biloba

63

Calanthe brevicornu

64

Calanthe chloroleuca

65

Calanthe clavate

66

Calanthe densiflora

67

Calanthe foestermannii

68

Calanthe gracilis

69

Calantheherbacea

70

Calanthe manni

71

Calanthe musuca

72

Calanthe plantaginea

73

Calanthe puberula

74

Calanthe tricarinata

75

Calanthe triplicata

76

Calanthe vaginata

77

Calanthe vestita

78

Calanthe whiteana

79

Cephalanthera ongifolia

80

Ceratostylis himalaica

81

Ceratostylis teres

82

Cheirostylis griffithii

83

Cheirostylis pusilla

84

Cleisocentron trichromum

85

Cleisostoma aspersum

86

Cleisostoma filliforme

87

Cleisostoma simondii

88

Cleisostoma striatum

89

Cleisostoma subulatum

90

Cleisostoma racemiferum

91

Coelogyne barbata

92

Coelogyne corymbosa

93

Coelogyne cristata

94

Coelogyne flaccida

95

Coelogyne fuscescens

96

Coelogyne griffithi

97

Coelogyne hitendrae

98

Coelogyne longipes

99

Coelogyne micrantha

100

Coelogyne nitida

101

Coelogyne occuitata

102

Coelogyne ovalis

103

Coelogyne prolifera

104

Coelogyne punctulata

105

Coelogyne raizada

106

Coelogyne rigida

107

Coelogyne schultesii

108

Coelogyne stricta

109

Coelogyne viscosa

110

Corymborkis veratrifolia

111

Cremastra wallichiana

112

Cryptochilus lutea

113

Cryptochilus sanguineus

114

Cymbidium aloifolium

115

Cymbidium cochleare

116

Cymbidium devonianum

117

Cymbidium elegans

118

Cymbidium ensifolium

119

Cymbidium eburneum

120

Cymbidium iridioidea

121

Cymbidium lancifolium

122

Cymbidium longifolium

123

Cymbidium lowianum

124

Cymbidium macrorhizon

125

Cymbidium mastersii

126

Cymbidium pendulam

127

Cymbidium tigrinum

128

Cymbidium tracyanum

129

Dendrobium acinaciforme

130

Dendrobium anceps

131

Dendrobium aphyllum

132

Dendrobium bensoniae

133

Dendrobium bicameratum

134

Dendrobium candidum

135

Dendrobium chrysanthum

136

Dendrobium chrystoxum

137

Dendrobium crepidatum

138

Dendrobium densiflorum

139

Dendrobium denudans

140

Dendrobium devonianum

141

Dendrobium eriaeflorum

142

Dendrobium falconeri

143

Dendrobium farmeri

144

Dendrobiumfimbriatum

145

Dendrobium formosum

146

Dendrobium gibsonil

147

Dendrobium heterocarpum

148

Dendrobium hookerianum

149

Dendrobium  infundibulam

150

Dendrobium jenkinsii

151

Dendrobium lindleyi

152

Dendrobium longicornu

153

Dendrobium moschatum

154

Dendrobium nobile

155

Dendrobium  ochreatum

156

Dendrobium  porphyrochilum

157

Dendrobium  primulinum

158

Dendrobium pulchellum

159

Dendrobium stuposum

160

Dendrobium terminata

161

Dendrobium thysiflorum

162

Dendrobium transparens

163

Dendrobium wardianum

164

Dendrobium williamsonii

165

Diplomeria hirsuta

166

Diplomeria pulchelia

167

Diplomeria championi

168

Epigeneium amplum

169

Epigeneium fuscescens

170

Epigeneium rotundatum

171

Eria acevata

172

Eria alba

173

Eria amica

174

Eria bambusifolia

175

Eria biflora

176

Eria bractesces

177

Eria coronaria

178

Eria dasyphylla

179

Eria excavata

180

Eria graminifolia

181

Eria muscicola

182

Eria paniculata

183

Eria pannea

184

Eria spicata

185

Eria stricta

186

Eria vittata

187

Eulophia bicallosa

188

Eulophia graminea

189

Eulophia nuda

190

Flickingeria fimbriata

191

Flickingeria fugax

192

Galeola falconeri

193

Galeola lindleyana

194

Gastrochilus acutifolium

195

Gastrochilus calceolaris

196

Gastrochilus distichus

197

Gastrochilus inconspicuum

198

Gastrochilus pseudodisticus

199

Geodorum densiflorum

200

Goodyera foliosa

201

Goodyera fusca

202

Goodyera hispida

203

Goodyera procera

204

Goodyera repens

205

Goodyera schiechtendaliana

206

Goodyera secundiflora

207

Goodyera viridiflora

208

Habennaria acuifera

209

Habennaria dentata

210

Habennaria ensifolia

211

Habennaria furcifera

212

Habennaria intermedia

213

Habennaria malleifera

214

Habennaria pactinata

215

Habennaria stenopetala

216

Herminium lanceum

217

Herminium macrophyllum

218

Herminium monorchis

219

Hetaeria rubens

220

Hygrochilus parishii

221

Kingidium deliciosum

212

Kingidium taenialis

213

Liparis assamica

214

Liparis bistriate

215

Liparis biturberculata

216

Liparis bootanensis

217

Liparis caespitosa

218

Liparis cordifolia

219

Liparis  delicatula

220

Liparis distans

221

Liparis longipes

222

Liparis nervosa

223

Liparis  odorata

224

Liparis pardoxa

225

Liparis petiolata

226

Liparis plantaginea

227

Liparis platyrachis

228

Liparis pulchella

229

Liparis resupina

230

Liparis viridiflora

231

Luisia inconspicua

232

Luisia prachystachys

233

Luisia prachystachys

234

Luisia teritifolia

235

Luisia trichorhiza

236

Luisia zeylanica

237

Malaxis acuminata

238

Malaxis biaurita

239

Malaxis cylindroatachya

240

Malaxis josephiana

241

Malaxis khasiana

242

Malaxis latifolia

243

Micropera mannii

244

Micropera rostrata

245

Monomera barbata

246

Neogyne gardneriana

247

Neotianthe secundiflora

248

Neottia listeroides

249

Nephelaphyllum cordifolium

250

Nervilia aragoana

251

Nervilia prainiana

252

Oberonia acaulis

253

Oberonia clarkel

254

Oberonia ensiformis

255

Oberonia griffithiana

256

Oberonia iridifolia

257

Oberonia longilabris

258

Oberonia mannii

259

Oberonia micrantha

260

Oberonia obcordata

261

Oberonia orbicularis

262

Oberonia pachyrachis

263

Oberonia pyrulifera

264

Oberonia recurva

265

Oreochis foliosa

266

Ornithochilus difformis

267

Otochilus alba

268

Otochilus fusca

269

Otochilus lancilabius

270

Pachystoma senile

271

Panasia unifllora

272

Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum

273

Papiopedilum insigne

274

Paplionanthe longicornu

275

Paplionanthe teres

276

Pecteilis gigantea

277

Pecteilis susannae

278

Pelanthanthera insectifera

279

Perisrtylus affinis

280

Perisrtylus chloranthus

281

Perisrtylus constictus

282

Perisrtylus densus

283

Perisrtylus falla

284

Perisrtylus goodyeroides

285

Perisrtylus mannii

286

Perisrtylus prainii

287

Phalus flabus

288

Phalus longipes

289

Phalus mishmensis

290

Phalus tankervilliae

291

Pholidota articulata

292

Pholidota calceolata

293

Pholidota convallariae

294

Pholidota grifithii

295

Pholidota imbricata

296

Pholidota imbricata

297

Pholidota imbrcata

298

Pholidota protacta

299

Pholidota rubra

300

Phreatia elegans

301

Platanthera arcuata

302

Platanthera stenantha

303

Pleione hookeriana

304

Pleione humilis

305

Pleione maculata

306

Pleione praecox

307

Poneoorchis chusua

308

Pteroceras suaveolens

309

Renanthera imschootiana

310

Rhynchostylis retuasa

311

Robiquetia succisa

312

Satyrium napalense

313

Schoenorchis gemmata

314

Smitinandia micrantha

315

Spathoglottis ixioides

316

Spathoglottis plicata

317

Spathoglottis pubescens

318

Spiranthes sinense

319

Sunipia bicolor

320

Sunipia candida

321

Thelasis longlifolia

322

Taeniophyllum khasianum

323

Thunia alba

324

Thunia marshlliana

325

Tropidia curculigoides

326

Tylostyles discolor

327

Uncifera acuminata

328

Uncifera obtusifolia

329

Vanda alpina

330

Vanda bicolor

331

Vanda coerulea

332

Vanda cristata

333

Vanda pumila

334

Vanda tesselata

335

Vanda testacea

336

Vanda undulata

337

Vandopsis vandarum

338

Yoania prainii

339

Zeuxine abbreviata

340

Zeuxine flava

341

Zeuxine goodyeroides

342

Zeuxine gracilis

343

Zeuxine nervosa

344

Zeuxine strateumatica

FAUNA 

A.MAMMALS

 Common Name                                    Scientific Name                          

1. Asian Elephant                                           Elephas maximus.

2. Gaur (Indian Bison)                                    Bos gaurus.

3. Jackal                                                          Canis aurius

4. Tiger                                                             Panthera tigris.

5. Sambar                                                        Cervus unicolor

6. Leopard                                                       Panthera pardus.

7. Barking Deer                                               Muntaiqus muntijak

8. Wild boar.                                                    Sus scrofa

9. Sloth Bear                                                    Melursus arsinus

10. Serow                                                        Capricornis sumatraensis

11. Hoolock                                                     Hylobatus hoolock

12. Common Langur                                      Presbytis antillus

13. Macaque                                                   Macaca spp.                          

14. Leopard Cat.                                            Filis bengalensis

15. Himalayan Squirrel                                  Callosciuras pygerythru         

16. Pangolin.                                                   Manis crasicaudata

17. Civet.                                                        Vivirra Spp.

18. Wolf                                                          Canis auririus

19. Fruit bat                                                    Cynoptirus sphinx

20. Porcupine                                                Hystrix indica

21. Hispis hare                                             Caprogus hispisdus

22. Slow Loris                                               Nycticebus causeang

23. Otter                                                         Lutra lutra

24. Wild Dog                                                Cuon alpinus

25. Orange billed Himalyan  Squirrel          Cirrus unicolor                            

26. Mangoose                                               Herpester spp.

27. Musk Deer.                                             Moschus moschiferous.

28. Binturong                                                 Arctictis binturong

29. Jungle cat                                                Filis chaus.

30. Mole rat                                                    Bandicota bengalensis

31. Indian hare                                               Lypus nigricolis.

32. Martin                                                       Martis spp.

33. House Mouse                                          Mus musculus

34. Field Mouse                                             Mus booduga

35. Goral                                                         Nemarahidus goral

36. Clouded Leopard                                    Niofolis nibulosa

37. Palm Civet                                                Paguna larvata

38. Wood cat                                                  Rattus blaufardi

39. House cat                                                 Rattus rattus

40. Fulvous fruit bat                                        Tousettus leschinuitas

41. Indian fox                                                   Vulpis bengalensin

B.REPTILES:

Common Name                                     Scientific Name

Monitor lizard                                                    Tortoise

Python ( reticulate)                                            King cobra

Common krait                                                   Banded krait

Viper                                                                  Common cobra

c. BIRDS      

Common Name                                      Scientific Name

Greyheaded fishing eagle                              Ichuophaga nana

Crested serpent eagle                                    pilernia cleala

Bearded vulture                                               Gypactus barbatus

Forest eagle owl                                             Bubo nipalensis

Collared pigmy owlet                                      Tus bakkameena

Collared scope owl                                         Laucidium brodei

Tragopan                                                         Tragopan blythii

Kaleej Pheasants                                           Lophura leucemelona

Common hill patridge                                     Arboraphila forqueola

Common pheasants                                       Entropus simensia

Red Jungle fowl                                               Gallus gallus

Peacock pheasants                                        Polyplectron bicalcaratum

Pintailed green pigeons                                 Treron apicauda

Rutous turtle dove                                           Streptopolia orientalia

Marrnbacked imperial pigeon                       Ducula badia

Emarald dove                                                  Chalcophapa indica

Himalayan Jungle nightjar                              Caprimulgus indicus

Indian roller                                                      Coracias bengalensis

Chestnut threaded bee-eater                        Morapa leschanaulti

Bluethreated barbet                                        Mengalaima lineata

Great barbet                                                    Megalaima virens

Great pied hornbill                                          Buceros bicornis

Rufousnecked hornbill                                    Aceros nipalensis

Goldenbacked throated woodepecker         Dimopium shorii

Darjeeling pied woodpecker                          Picoides darjellensis

Redaered by woodpecker                              Lythipicus pyrrhotis

Bluenapped pitta                                              Pitta nepanlensis

Mrs. Gould’s sunbird                                        Aethopyga gapldinale

Nepal Yellow backed sunbird                         Aethopyga nipalensis

Black breasted sunbird                                   Aethopyga saturata

Firetailed yellow backed sunbird                   Aethopyga ignicauda

Longtailed broadbill                                         Serilophus lunatus

Red drumped swallow                                     Hirundedaurice

Tyflers swallow                                                  Hirunderustice tyleri

Balcknapped ariole                                          Oriolus chinesis

Himalayan tree pie                                           Dendrocitta formosee

Bronzed drongo                                                Dicrurus aeneus

Large brown thrush                                           Zoothera menticola

Lesser racket-tailed drongo                            Dicrurus renifer

Large racket tailed drongo                              Dicrurus paradiseau

Black drongo                                                     Dicrurus adaimilis

Grey drongo                                                       Dicrurus  leucephaecus

Clouded Leopard                                              Niofolis nibulosa

 

The endangered species- both flora and fauna in Nagaland and measures taken by the Government to protect them and prevent extinction.

The local population being are intricately involved with the forests for their sustenance, be it  agriculture, timber, small, timber, day to day use items or medicinal plants etc. These forest products are also their main source of economy. Therefore, when the main stay of the  people is dependent on forest, destruction of forests is imminent and thereby endangering many valuable species. Due to the primitive method/ practice of cultivation (i.e slash burning) the rich Biodiversity of the state is dwindling year by year.

Most of species, both flora and fauna, appears to be endangered due to heavy biotic pressure/ interference and reckless deforestation. Their details are as follows.

Flora:

 Dipterocarpous macrocarpous (Hollong), Shorea assamica ( Makai)  , Rodhodendron Spp. , Mesua ferra (Nahar), are rare and endangered spp. Panax gensing (Gensing)  is found only in Tuensang district at higher altitude. It is endangered. Aquilaria agallocha (Agar )is also a endangered species. Rare and Endangered species of Orchids available in Nagaland are as follows,

Thunia 1 spp, Arundinaria graminifolia ( Bamboo orchid), Renenthera (Red vanda), ,Rhynchostylis ( fox tail), Pleoni, Phauis (ground orchid) 2 spp, Paphiopedilum 1 spp, Cymbidium tigrinum 1 spp.

The Govt. is taking measures for propagation conservation and protection of these spp. through different afforestation schemes.

Fauna:

The largest Asian mammal, Elephant is endangered spp. The other endangered spps are Melurses ursinus (Sloth Bear ), Prionodon pardicolor (Spotted linsang, Tiger-civet), Panthera tigris (Tiger) , Macaca assamensis (Tailed Pig). The Gaur, or Indian Bison   in habitats in Intangki National Park and Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary and other hilly areas is facing extinction from Nagaland The different Horn bills and Tortoise are also endangered.  

Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

Recently (i.e. on 27.2.2002) the department and  NEHU (Shillong) has conducted workshop in Dimapur on state level Biodiversity strategy and action plan for conservation and protection of various ecosystems. During workshop people from all walks of society have participated and a draft action plan has been prepared.