Plantation Techniques for Nagaland.
Preparation for Plantation.
of Rootshoot Stump
of Planting Sites.
of Trees in Jhum Cultivation
to Plant Rootshot Stump.
Mixture in Plantation
PLANTATION TECHNIQUES FOR NAGALAND.
The only activity
in which Nagas can excel over others is in Timber production. Timber production does not
require any sophisticated factories or skilled labour. The only pre-requisite is plentiful
rainfall, salubrious climate, suitable soil, fast growing tree species, and availability
of vacant land for planting;- all of which are abundantly available in Nagaland.
has developed to such a sophistication that even in the under developed countries it is
done with animal backbone; while the developed countries are doing Agriculture now even
with Steel backbone machines. But in Nagaland today, even in this age of computers,
agriculture is done with human backbone and with the ancient Dao and Hoe. Agriculture in a
mountainous country like Nagaland do not have the potential to generate economy for the
people beyond bare subsistence.
matter how much technologically advanced a people may be, if they are not self sufficient
in food grains, they cannot have a sense of well being. So the first consideration in the
development of the economy of Nagaland is the attainment of self sufficiency in food grain
production. Nagaland must first be self
sufficient in its food grain production, and to do this, the jhum cultivation practice
which consume the overwhelming part of the village labour, must be converted to a more
productive activity. The activity must be translated into production of industrial raw
material, and this can be achieved only by transforming jhum cultivation into an
industrial practice of timber production rather than the traditional practice of
agriculture. Jhum cultivation would then be transformed into the process of producing one
of the costliest industrial raw materials of the modern age, timber.
rainfall ( 2000 mm), tropical to temperate climate, gentle topography (200-3800 M),
immense varieties of fast growing tree species, and vast vacant lands, tree plantation
with jhum cultivation has tremendous potential to produce Timber and thus catapult the
economy of the poor Naga villagers into an industrial economy within one generation. Tree
Plantation through jhum cultivation will usher in an Economic Revolution in Naga Society.
Tree can be
planted here and there by any persons, but tree plantation in such vast economic scale
needs among others Technical Planning, Organization and even Legal backings. The
techniques mentioned here are not the last word on the subject; but these are a
combination of Forestry techniques with experiences of Forest officials gained since the
State of Nagaland was formed in 1963, and hence contain considerable practical
applicability, and hence contain considerable practical applicability.
TREE AND GROW RICH.
2. SELECTION OF
first point to be decided in any tree plantation venture is the Species Selection.
This would depend on the elevation of the location, because trees that grow in high
elevation may not grow well in lower elevation and vice versa. In a mountainous area
elevation plays a very important role in the success or failure of a species. To
facilitate tree plantation, three Elevation Zones in Nagaland are recognized.
Elevation Zone : 100 meters to 750 metes (333-2500). The fast growing that
do well in this zone are:
( Ghora neem)
Elevation Zone : 750m-1500m(2500 5000
species suitable for this zone are :
1. Gmelina arborea
2. Terminalia myriocarpa
3. Artocarpus chaplasa
4. Chickrasia tabularis
5. Pinus petula, P.caribea (Pines)
6. Albizia procera
7. Betula alnoides
8. Melia composita (Ghora neem)
9. Lannea axillaries
Michelia champaca (Tita
High Elevation Zone : 1500m-2000m, (5000 6666) or up to suitable cultivable
The species suitable for this zone ar
1. Pinus spp.
2. Betula alnoides (Birch)
3. Lannea axillaries (Naga
5. Alnus nepalensis
6. Melia composita (Ghora neem)
7. Terminalia myriocarpa (Hollock)
8. Artocarpus chaplasa
WOOD WILL BE THE MOST LUXERIOUS.
COMMODITY IN THE 21ST
should be collected from healthy, mature, and vigorously growing trees. Different Trees
mature and produce seed at different seasons of the year; hence, it is good to know the
fruiting and ripening seasons of different Trees to enable collection of seeds in good time.
ripens in November to January
arborea (Gamari) June
composita (Ghora neem) November
November to January
axillaries (Naga neem) November
November to January
November to January
November to December
November to January
cadamba (Kadam) July
sonnerritoides (Khokan) December
champaca (Alder) November
November to January
The seeds should be completely dry if they are to be stored for more than a few
weeks. If the seeds are not dry, they will respire actively in their bags or
basket containers and would generate enough heat to destroy the delicate embryo in each
TREE GROWS DAY AND NIGHT AND SO GROW
AND GROW RICH DAY AND NIGHT
4. SEED TREATMENT
seeds have hard seed cover for which it becomes difficult for water to seep into the
embryo quickly. If water does not seep into the embryo, the seeds will not germinate.
Therefore, seeds with such hard coats like Teak/Gamari/Ghora neem/Naga neem/ etc. may be
soaked in water till signs of sprouting are detected in the seeds. Different seeds will
need different periods of soaking and with little practice, the correct amount of time for
proper soaking can be found out. To find out whether the seed are fertile or not, a small
quantity may be thrown into burning charcoal (without flames) and fertile ones will
sputter or explode which will indicate fertile seeds.
UNRIPE FRUIT CANNOT BE SOLD BUT FIREWOOD
TREES FETCHES MONEY
5. NURSERY TECHNIQUE (PREPARATION)
Location : It is very necessary to locate the
nursery near the plantation site. The nursery should be located as far as possible in a
flatland, near water source. Try to locate the Nursery on the Northern, Western aspects of
a Hill slope; try to avoid Southern Aspects on hill slope because of too much sunshine and
heat. The nursery beds must not be allowed to become dry after the seeds are sown. In the
hotter Plain sector of Nagaland, seed can be germinated even during the winter months, in
such a case the nursery beds may have to be watered. The nursery beds should be well
drained, there should be no stagnancy of water.
Working : The nursery site should be clear felled of all vegetation if the Nursery is
a new one. The jungle clearance may be done during winter to early Spring season
preferably before Weeds ripen their fruits so that weeds may be decreased in the Nursery
beds, it burns of the seeds the Weeds and other undesirable plants.
is desirable to plough or hoe the soil in the winter and allow it to weather for some
time. The Nursery beds may be raised if the area is plain to ensure good drainage, in hill
sides it may be a little sunken to conserve moisture though during very heavy rain there
is possibility of it getting flooded if drainage is not made
bed size : The ploughed soil can be organized into beds of 1 metre wide, 15 cms high,
10 metres long, or as long as the topography would allow. The soil in the nursery should
be worked into a compact, smooth, and fine textured consistency. If the nursery in
flatland it should be separated by a pathway of 30 cms, so that the beds can be weeded by
standing on the pathway.
sowing : The seeds may be sown evenly spread over the beds, and a thin layer of fine
soil is spread evenly over the seeds. This type of sowing may be done very small sized
seeds of Hollock, Betula, Alder, Cedrella, Bogipoma etc. For bigger sized seeds, a
small straight furrows across the length of the bed may be made in the beds with a light
dibble or a wooden stick and the seeds sown in the furrows and covered up with soil.
deep must the seeds be sown? : The Thumb
Rule is to bury the seeds at the depth of the seeds diameter.
of the Beds : Moisture and temperature of the soil in the Nursery beds are very
important factors for germination of the seeds. To achieve this, the beds may be covered
with transparent polythene sheets with its ends weighed down by small stones or
clods of soil. This will prevent moisture loss through evaporation and increase the
temperature of the nursery beds, though in practice this is easier said than done. It is
more practical to expose the beds to the Suns to water the beds to maintain the correct
moisture level in the nursery beds.
of Sowing : It is not easy to store seeds
in bulk for planting in March-April, the best size of the seedling is about thumb or toe
sized. To achieve this size the seeds may be sown in February-June, but most of the trees
have not yet produced their seeds then and hence the seeds must collected the previous
year. Thus to have optimum planting ,materials, the nursery should and must be sown one
and half year before the year of plantation.
best time of Sowing : The best time to
sow the seeds is just after a shower. Normally in Nagaland, every month experiences at
least one rain, and seeds sown in the nursery just after a rain in the month give very
good result. It is therefore very important for a Tree Planter to have a very intimate
knowledge of the weather of the locality. Some villagers say that seeds sown during the
full moon is very successful.
species like Gomari produces ripe fruits in June-July and if immediately sown after the
ripe fruits fall to the ground, they may be ready for planting in the next March-April,
usually in the markedly seasonal hill areas of Nagaland, it takes more than one year to
produce the planting materials.
of the nursery : For proper growth of the
seedling a fertile soil is desirable, but when soil in the nursery is more fertile than
the plantation site, the plants do not fare very well initially in the first year of the
plantation but how successfully the plants have grown in the first year determines the
success and failure of the Plantation. Therefore, raising of seedlings from normally
fertile soil would be best suited in the field condition. In Nagaland, normally it is not
necessary to add manure to a new nursery to ass manure to a nursery except for the
nurseries which have been used for several years.
in the Nursery : Nursery cannot be weeded
when the tree seedlings have not yet established their root system properly. If weeding is
done, at this time the seedling would be uprooted. This is the reason why at the time of
preparing nursery, the plant debris should be burnt thoroughly before original weed plants
are burnt. Nursery can be weeded only when
the root system of the seedlings have established properly. Leaves of the mature seedlings
individuals may be plucked off to distribute sunlight to other smaller seedlings, so that
all seedlings attain equal size.
of seeds in a Nursery Bed : Greater the
number of seeds planted in a bed, smaller will be the size of the seedling at the time of
planting. To get quality sized seedling (thumb size), the seed may be sown broadcast in
the Nursery bed and then when they are few leaves old, some may be pricking out so that
the remaining may be spaced at about 3-4 cms apart. The pricked out seedling may be
planted in other prepare
on Seedling for Plantation:
In case of
plantation of a limited area like in a household garden where only
a few seedlings or at the most a few hundreds are required;
seedlings may be prepared in polythene bags. If seedlings are to be raised in polythene
bags, then one has to select the correct size materials.
The first thing to be done is to collect polythene bags from the
market which are available in various sizes. The seedlings grown in polybags will have to
the transplanted at the end of the year, this would mean that a very big bag is not
needed; only a 10 cms diameter would be suffice for raising one-year old seedlings. If you
want to prepare bigger size seedling, you may select bigger polythene bags.
During the dry
season, dry soil may be prepared into fine textured consistency, this may be filled into
the polybags and compacted by holding the fully filled bag and dropping it to the ground
from 30 cm above the ground without letting the soil spill out. When the soil settles at a
level less than the mouth of the bag, more soil may be added to make the soil almost
filling the bag fully. It may be mixed with manure if the soil is not fertile. Normally,
soil that has been lying fallow for several years need no chemical fertilizers. Organic
manure can be used if required. Seed are sown directly into the bags during the sowing
season i.e February-June
The sown polybags
should be preferably kept in shade and the soil not allowed to become dry. The drawback of
this method is that when germination do not take place it is detected only after a period
of time, then seed has to be sown again into the polybags but the time lost cannot be
recovered. To avoid this drawback, the seeds can be sown broadcast in a prepared nursery
bed and watered regularly. Watering of minute seeds (Hollock, Alder, Betula, Khokon,
Kadam, even Cedrellas) should be not done by splashing water with ordinary water can
because the water drops are liable to splash the minute seeds preventing the seeds the
time to strike root. Water should be sprayed in the beds preferably till root system of
the seedlings are well developed. Beds should be moist rather than wet. If beds are kept
constantly moist, it may not require sheds. The seeds are allowed to germinate and grow up
to about 3 cms to 5 cms and then pricked out and planted in the polybags and grown till it
is fit for plantation in the field. Normally, however, the plants are allowed to grow in
the nursery beds till the planting season when they may be uprooted and root-shoot stump
prepared out of them.
7.Root-shoot Stump Preparation :
raised in the polybags are costly and difficult to transport; transporting thousands of
seedlings from nursery to plantation sites several Kms away in mountainous terrain on head
load is not an easy task.
instead of seedling, planting material known as Root shoot stump is prepared. This
consists of a seedling whose root has been cut off at about 15 cms and the stem cut off at
about 3 cms above the ground level.
A 1(one) year old
seedling is dug out or pulled out of the ground by watering the soil thoroughly. If the
soil is deep and soft, the seedlings can be pulled out without injury to the seedling; but
if the seedlings have deep roots and the soil hard, such pulling can injure and damage the
seedlings and effect the quality of the planting material. See that the seedling is taken
out without injury.
It is better to
dug out the seedlings and prepare the root shoot stumps. The root-shoot stump is prepared
during February-March a few days before the planting. If they are stored in cool shed, they
can be kept even for weeks. If stored in wet, hot and dark place, tender shoots may grow
from the stump and may get crushed at the time of handling and spoil them.
Seedlings are dug
out, the stem portion beyond 3 cm (above the ground) is cut off in a slanting manner to
differentiate it from the root with a sharp Dao without smashing the bark of the seedling.
Similarly, the root portion beyond 15 cm is cut off. The rootlets are trimmed without
injuring the main tap root.
WHEN YOU PLANT TREES, YOU ARE PLANTING
8. Trees cannot grow without sunshine,
hence the area must be clear felled of all vegetation. This operation is done during the
winter. The plant materials become dry in about a month and by January the area is burned
completely of the plant. This is accomplished by just one burning but by collecting the
partially burned materials and repeatedly burning them. But even after removal of all
green vegetation over ground, the roots and the underground portions of the plants remain
alive and within a few weeks of spring rains, the whole area may be completely covered
with fresh and new growths from the underground stumps of the old plants. But at the time
of sowing the agri-crops, the underground rhizomes and tubers of most of the weeds and
climbers are removed. This is one factor why the Trees planted in the jhum cultivation do
very well. The shrub and climber are removed when the jhum cultivators do the traditional
cleaning of their fields. Thus, the tree seedlings are greatly benefited by these jhum
cultivation practices. Even in the second year, it is much easier to clean the area
because the weed growth in the area are much decreased due to their complete removal more
than once during the previous first year. Thus, it has been found that the tree growth is
better in the jhum cultivation. Tree cultivation becomes costly and prohibitive for the
common villagers unless it is taken up together with Jhum cultivation. Another important
factor of the suitability of jhum cultivation for tree cultivation is the customary
grazing practice which allows free grazing of areas not under jhum cultivation; so even if
an area is planted with tree species, unless the area is also planted up with agricultural
crops, none can prohibit traditional grazing in the area. If an area is planted only with
the tree alone, the area has to be strongly fenced up to protect the trees from being
grazed by cattle which is not an easy task in a jungle area. Therefore, tree planting
along with Jhuming ensures the most effective control of grazing.
PLANTING TREE IS AN
9. Spacing of Trees in Jhum Plantation
The soil of an
area has a specific fertility and no area can support an indefinite number of vegetation
than its fertility can allow. So under this specific fertility condition of soil,
less the number of trees an area supports; greater is the food available to the trees
resulting in faster growth of the trees. The value of tree is dependent on the size of
sawn timber obtainable from the tree, and not much on its number. It is better to
grow less number of trees in the unit areas, then to have lot of small trees.
It is more
economic to grow less number of trees to obtain timber of maximum size than to produce
many small size from a unit area. It is thus, important to plant only the correct number
of trees per hectare. The spacing would determine the number of plants per hectare. This
would vary from place to place and for other practical reasons of jhum cultivation. If the
tree spacing is very close, it will also interfere with the growth of the food crop.
point to consider is that the denser the trees the lesser the weed growth. Weed poses a
major problem to plantation in Nagaland and therefore there is tendency on the part of the
tree farmers to plant a little more than the required number. Another reason for close
spacing is for security against casualty, as replacement is a difficult task in Nagaland
condition. Therefore, the planters decide to adopt closer spacing than the prescribed
norms, but this has the danger of producing whippy trees thus greatly reducing the value
of the plantations.
than 833 trees per hectare is not advisable for timber purpose. Initially, trees have a
fast height increment period and once the period is reached, them fast diameter increment
period starts. If the trees are congested, diameter increment would suffer and therefore,
as soon as the trees have attained their height period, they must be thinned. The size of
trees of the thinned material will have a direct bearing on its value. Thousands
will be thinned from a few hectares and if these do not fetch good price, it would be a
great mismanagement of the tree plantation and the resources. If the thinned material has
an average diameter of less than 10 cm., it would not fetch a good price.
tree should be planted at such spacing that they attain their height growth when the
average tree has a diameter of about 10 cm in about 4-6 years. Thus various factors taken
into considerations, the best spacing are:
5 metres x 4
metres = 500 trees per hectare
4 metres x 4
metres = 625 trees per hectare
4 metres x 3
metres = 833 trees per hectare
5 metres x 4 metres Spacing :
The plants may be planted in lines of 5 meters apart so that food crops may be
raised in the inter space. In lines, the trees may be planted at every 4 metres. This will
give about 5oo trees per hectare.
4 metres x 4 metres:
plants may be planted in 4 metres apart in lines and row. This will give 625 trees per
4 metres x 3 metres
The plants are spaced at 3 metres
apart in lines of 4 metres apart. This will give 833 trees per hectare.
Under Nagaland conditions of plant growth, species like Teak, Gamari, Neem, Kadam,
Khokan, Sam, attains its normal height growth in about 3 to 4 years. As soon as they
attain the normal height growth, they begin to attain their diameter growth rapidly. But
if the trees are congested around 4 years of age, their diameter increment will suffer
resulting in price fall. And plantation being an investment, every thing possible should
be done to get maximum returns.
Those who want to grow other crops together with the tree species may adopt the 5
metres x 4 metres spacing or even 6 metres x 4 metres spacing. But if agri-crops are not
grown then lower spacing may be adopted.
The first thinning of the plantation will fetch some income from the 5th
year or so of the plantation. In such a plantation, a spacing of 4 metres x 3 metres or 4
metres x 4 metres may be adopted as by then, the trees may attain about 30 cm girth or 10
cm diameter. These thinned materials can be sold as Bally post.
of Plantation Sites:
The plantation sites may be prepared in the same way as one prepares for jhum
cultivation. In the cool mountains where winter is a definitely marked feature, the jhum
jungle clearance starts in about October but in the lower elevations, the jungle clearance
can be done even in February-March. In the mountains, by February, soil preparation for
paddy begins and when the site is completely cleaned and burnt of debris; it is ready for
sowing of paddy, the root shoot stump should be planted along with it simultaneously. The
trees should be planted in lines that may run roughly in the North South direction to get
THE BEST LEGACY YOU CAN LEAVE TO FUTURE
GENERATION IS TO LEAVE A TREE FARM TO
10. In the line, at selected spacing point
the soil may be worked by dibbling with a small dibble upto a depth more than the length
of the stump. When the soil is dibbled soft and deep enough, the root shoot stump is
inserted into the soil so that the tip of the stump is about 2-3 cm above the ground level
to prevent the stump from getting drowned during heavy and prolonged rain. If the area is
plain, the soil may be gathered into a small hump above the general level of the ground so
that the planting spot will not have any stagnant water.
After the stump is
planted, the soil around the stump may be pressed firmly so that there are no air spaces
around the stump in the ground. The stump should be perpendicular to the horizontal level
so as to prevent it from growing to a curved stem if planted at an angle. A curved stem
will greatly decrease the value of the log in the future. In the slopes the stumps are
planted 2-5 cm above the ground to avoid and prevent soil from above the field burying it
which may results in decay and death of the stumps.
Mixture in the Plantation:
A number of
species is given in the paragraph on Elevation zones, but it has not been mentioned how
they should be mixed in any plantation. The species mentioned are grouped into two (two)
classes in order to facilitate scientific management. All the species mentioned are not
only fast growing but are also able to give good returns to the grower. Some are very fast
growing, hence they are mixed a Fast growing species to a very fast growing.
This is done because very fast growing species are less valuable than fast growing species
but they grow big enough to be harvested around 5 to 8 years of planting when the
plantation must be thinned to facilitate the quick diameter growth of the costly fast
growing species. Thus, when the very fast growing species are removed, the
plantation will give sufficient space to the remaining more valuable economic species. If
thinning is not done when the plants are about 7 to 10 cm (3 to 4 inches) diameter and
they become crowded, then the plants will become whippy and become like Bamboo with
very little value as a timber.
growing species (FG) are :
Teak, Gamari, Sam, Hollock, Bogipoma, Pine, Cedrella, Betula, Tita sopa, Koroi.
The Very Fast
growing (VFG) species are :
Ghora neem, Naga neem, khokon, and other being identified.
Mixture Plan :
Ist Line 1 2
VFG FG VFG FG VFG FG
Line 7 8
VFG FG VFG FG
14 15 16 17 18
VFG FG VFG FG VFG FG
Line 19 20 21 22 23 24
VFG FG VFG FG VFG FG
Because of the good natural conditions for plant growth, weed growth in Nagaland is
problematically very fast. On a qualitative scale, the weeds in Nagaland grows almost 52
times faster than the tree species. This is why weeding of plantation is economically not
viable. Therefore, this is the reason alone in Nagaland TREE PLANTATION is ideally
practicable only with JHUM CULTIVATION. At the time of weeding the paddy, the tree
plants are automatically weeded without extra effort and costs.
cultivation has great potentials on Nagaland.
plantation is done by all jhum cultivators; in one generation, Nagaland can become a
timber producing State.. It is not possible for a few government servants of the State
Forest Department with meager budget to plant enough trees for the State. Every cultivator
in Nagaland can plant at least a few trees every year together with his Jhum cultivation
and planting of 50 trees by each cultivator and nurturing them is not difficult as it is
planted along with the jhum crops and would/does not increase his work.
Tree plantation is the only enterprise which will uplift the economy of every Naga
villagers, thereby ensuring prosperity.