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 Four differentspecies, both residents and migratory, are found in Nagaland. They are GreatPied Honbill (Bucerous bicornis), Rufousneccked Hornbill ( Aceros nepalensis), White throated Brown Hornbill (Ptilolaemus tickeli), and Assam Wreathrd Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulates). Honbills are fascinating birds, of which, the Great pied Hornbills a large pied black white bird with an enormous horned shape black and yellow bill and surrounded by a peculiar broad double pecked. The bird is about 51’’ in length and has a tail of 18.5.Female is smaller and measures on an average of 46’. They call sounds like a barking roar.


   These birds are generally found in  Evergreen forests in pairs or small parts of 3-5.They largely feeds on fruits especially wild figs (Ficus spp.) and fruits of Bonsum (Phobe goalparensis) and other berries and flowers (Bauhinia spp.) and variety of insects, lizards, mice, snakes and other small animals. The birds have regular time schedule over fixed routes to and from for their feeding and roosting places which are followed everyday.


The nesting season is generally in the month of March and April. During nesting a large, natural hollow is selected in a lofty tree in dense evergreen forests in species like Callophyllum tomentosum and other species often at 60 feet or more from the ground. After eggs have been laid the female blocks up the entrance of the hollow with a wall until there is only a narrow slit left, with in this the female incarcerates or imprisons her self. This phenomenon is called ‘‘Walling up the wife’’.  She is then fed by the male passing  throughout the period. The usual clutch is 3-5 eggs, but the larger hornbills may lay 1 or 2. Inc ubation lasts 1-2 months and chicks take6-7 weeks to fledge. After the young hatches out, the female comes out and feeds her young along with the mate.


 There is the Mount Kist forest under Jaluki Forst Division which is well known for migration of different types of hornbills especially the great pied hornbill and Rufous necked hornbill, The migration of the hornbills is a regular feature during th months of November to February.  The hornbills migrate in these areas. Due to heavy biotic interference, habitat is miserably degraded and there is lack of protection of these birds and, consequently, No. of migrating birds to this area is significantly dwindled.  Migration of hornbills to natural occurrence is usually observed.

Management Practice:

 A project for conservation of these wonderful and beautiful birds, whose Number. is dwindling day by day due to degradation and loss of their habitat, has been submitted to the Govt. of India by recognising and identifying Mount Kista Forests  as a  ‘‘ Bio diversity Conservation Area”  for approval.